G81 to G89 G-Code Canned Cycles Background
The canned cycles G81 through G89 have been implemented as described in this section. Two examples are given with the description of G81 below.
All canned cycles are performed with respect to the currently selected plane. Any of the three planes (XY, YZ, and ZX) may be selected. Throughout this section, most of the descriptions assume the XY-plane has been selected. The behavior is always analogous if the YZ or XZ-plane is selected.
Rotational axis words are allowed in canned cycles, but it is better to omit them. If rotational axis words are used, the numbers must be the same as the current position numbers so that the rotational axes do not move.
All canned cycles use X, Y, R and Z numbers in the NC-code. These numbers are used to determine X, Y, R and Z positions. The R (usually meaning retract) position is along the axis perpendicular to the currently selected plane (Z-axis for XY-plane, X-axis for YZ-plane, Y-axis for XZ-plane). Some canned cycles use additional arguments.
For canned cycles, we will call a number "sticky" if, when the same cycle is used on several lines of code in a row, the number must be used the first time, but is optional on the rest of the lines. Sticky numbers keep their value on the rest of the lines if they are not explicitly programmed to be different. The R number is always sticky.
In incremental distance mode: when the XY-plane is selected, X, Y and R numbers are treated as increments to the current position and Z as an increment from the Z-axis position before the move involving Z takes place; when the YZ or XZ-plane is selected, treatment of the axis words is analogous. In absolute distance mode, the X, Y, R and Z numbers are absolute positions in the current coordinate system.
The L number is optional and represents the number of repeats. L=0 is not allowed. If the repeat feature is used, it is normally used in incremental distance mode, so that the same sequence of motions is repeated in several equally spaced places along a straight line. In absolute distance mode, L > 1 means "do the same cycle in the same place several times," Omitting the L word is equivalent to specifying L=1. The L number is not sticky.
When L > 1 in incremental mode with the XY-plane selected, the X and Y positions are determined by adding the given X and Y numbers either to the current X and Y positions (on the first go-around) or to the X and Y positions at the end of the previous go-around (on the repetitions). The R and Z positions do not change during the repeats.
The height of the retract move at the end of each repeat (called "clear Z" in the descriptions below) is determined by the setting of the retract mode: either to the original Z position (if that is above the R position and the retract mode is G98) or otherwise to the R position.
It is an error if:
- X, Y and Z words are all missing during a canned cycle;
- A P number is required and a negative P number is used;
- An L number is used that does not evaluate to a positive integer;
- Rotational axis motion is used during a canned cycle;
- Inverse time feed rate is active during a canned cycle;
- Cutter radius compensation is active during a canned cycle.
When the XY plane is active, the Z number is sticky and it is an error if:
- The Z number is missing and the same canned cycle was not already active;
- The R number is less than the Z number.
When the XZ plane is active, the Y number is sticky and it is an error if:
- The Y number is missing and the same canned cycle was not already active;
- The R number is less than the Y number.
When the YZ plane is active, the X number is sticky and it is an error if:
- The X number is missing and the same canned cycle was not already active;
- The R number is less than the X number.
Preliminary and In-Between Motion
At the very beginning of the execution of any of the canned cycles, with the XY-plane selected, if the current Z position is below the R position, the Z-axis is traversed to the R position. This happens only once, regardless of the value of L.
In addition, at the beginning of the first cycle and each repeat, the following one or two moves are made:
- A straight traverse parallel to the XY-plane to the given XY-position;
- A straight traverse of the Z-axis only to the R position, if it is not already at the R position.
If the XZ or YZ plane is active, the preliminary and in-between motions are analogous.